HOUSING

Housing Congestion
The current land area of Hyderabad district which is only 18 percent of what it was in 1981 with nearly same level of population speak itself of the land congestion. The future outlook of Hyderabad district i.e. 2007 27, with a current urban population accounting for 82 percent of the total, indicates severe land constraints. The contracting land-man ratio in the context of significantly high level of urbanization will have perceptible impact on the future housing facilities in the area and consequently an introduction of new pattern of housing conducive to local climatic and socio-economic characteristics.

Period of Construction
According to an estimate, nearly 54 percent of houses in urban areas were built before 10 years, 23 percent during last 5 10 years, and 35 percent during last 5 years. Nearly 2 percent of houses were under construction. The proportions of houses in rural areas for the respective age of construction were 67 percent, 19 percent and 12 percent. Similar to urban area, the houses under construction in rural area was also in the close neighborhood of 2 percent.

Construction Materials Used of Outer Walls
Last census shows that in urban areas nearly 89 percent of the housing units used baked bricks/blocks/stone in preparing outer walls. Nearly 9 percent used unbaked bricks/earth bond, and nearly 2 percent used bamboo/wood. In rural areas, housing units using baked bricks/blocks/stone for outer wall had a much lower proportion i.e. nearly 28 percent. The majority (over 46 percent) used unbaked bricks/earth bond. The housing units using wood/bamboo was much higher in relation to urban area i.e. over 23 percent.

Construction Material used in Roofs
In the urban areas, the material used in roof construction was predominantly of RCC/RBC (nearly 69 percent) followed by wood/bamboos (16 percent) and cement/iron sheet (12 percent). In contrast to urban areas, the rural areas wood/bamboos were largely used (67 percent) in the construction of roof. The relative shares of cement/iron sheet and RCC/BRC were 19 percent and 10 percent, respectively.

Sources of Drinking Water
An estimate reveals different sources of drinking water in rural and urban areas. Over 85 percent of housing units in the urban areas received water from pipe (78 percent within the house and 7 percent outside the house). The corresponding share of housing units in rural areas receiving piped water supply was only 27 percent (21 percent inside and 6 percent outside).

The proportion of housing units receiving drinking water through hand pumps was 56 percent in rural areas and 11 percent in urban areas. The sources of well and ponds accounted for 8 percent in rural and less than one percent in urban areas. The rest used other sources such as fetching water from a distance (e.g. river, canals etc.)

Sources of Lighting
The housing units in urban areas using electricity as source of lighting accounted for nearly 94 percent as against nearly 57 percent in rural areas. The use of kerosene oil was predominant in rural areas (42 percent) as against nearly 5 percent in urban areas.

Sources of Cooking Fuel
The rural areas used wood (nearly 93 percent) as cooking fuel as against nearly 25 percent in urban areas. The use of natural gas was, on the other hand, negligible i.e. 3 percent in rural areas whereas over 69 percent of housing units in urban area used gas.

Sources of Information
Television was the most commonly used source of information in urban areas (over 70 percent) followed by newspapers (36 percent) and radio (26 percent). It also implies that people used multiple sources of information. This pattern was different in rural areas where proportionately less people used TV and newspapers as source of information..