POPULATION, EDUCATION

AND EMPLOYMENT

Population
The four talukas show some variation in the proportion of children of less than 15 years of age in the household. In case of Latifabad, it is lowest i.e. 12 percent as against an average of 18 percent for 4 talukas. It is an important demographic indicator reflecting need for a growth in family size given the socio-economic characteristics of the area. Age and Sex distribution of population of Hyderabad District is as follow:

 

Education
The proportion of educated males in the total males within the household is higher in Qasimabad (65%) and Latifabad (65%) whereas in case of Hyderabad city and rural areas it was recorded at 52 percent and 58 percent, respectively. The proportion of educated females in the total appears to be less than half of the proportion of educated males. The proportion of educated children within the category of 15 years or less is somewhat higher in rural areas (33%) whereas it is lowest (20%) in Hyderabad city.

Employment
The proportion of adult males who are employed was fairly high ranging between 64% and 78%. The proportion of children under 15 years of age who are employed was negligible.

Earners in the Family
The income categories under Rs.12,000 per month accounts for nearly three fourths of the total households covered under the survey. There is a positive relationship between income levels and number of earners all across which is quite obvious.

Expenditure Pattern
The total expenditure is directly related to income generated and size of the household. The discrepancies between incomes and expenditures reflect the notions of savings or borrowings. It is interesting to note that the first five income categories representing households within a monthly income of Rs.24, 000 on average tend to spend less in relation to their income categories. Whereas the higher income categories i.e. Rs.30, 000 per month or more show an expenditure pattern in access of Rs.30, 000 per month on average. However within each income categories across four talukas the expenditure pattern show no ostensible variations except for higher income categories in Latifabad and rural areas.

Education and Income Levels
The information on education and income levels of households was used to determine the extent of male education and earning males correspond to income levels.From the survey conducted by consultant and after its analyze, the view point of male earners it shows that even in the lowest income group’s higher proportion of male earners was observed. It implies that being an earner does not necessarily require education. Education does cause higher levels of earning.


The proportion of children in the household under 15 years of age shows weak relationship with income levels. The proportion is low in Hyderabad city taluka in relation to other talukas.
The household with low incomes tends to increase population to produce earners whereas those in the higher income categories increase family size with education.

Water, Sewerage & Health Facilities
A vast majority of 81 percent of the housing units had water pipeline connections. In Hyderabad Rural, nearly 75% of the households did not have water connection.The proportion of households enjoying a sewerage facility was less than the proportion of units with water connection. It implies that all units with water connections do not necessarily enjoy the facility of drainage. The impact of this variation on health and hygiene conditions could be adverse. It follows that water and sewerage connections be linked together as part of a policy package to minimize health hazards.


The facility of having a hospital in the vicinity was not encouraging. A total of 44 percent housing units had a hospital in the vicinity. Water and sewerage are not inter-connected and the resulting possibilities of health hazards are not adequately covered by the network of health facilities made available to each taluka. The case of Hyderabad Rural is particularly disturbing.

Provision of Basic Services
An overwhelming majority of 98 percent enjoys electricity connection.The level of provision of household connection to sewage system was low i.e. only 74 percent had such a facility. It follows that provision of household connection to sewage system and provision of sewage system in the area are not well connected.As a basic municipal service, the issues of water supplies, sewerage connections to households and a sewage system in an area are vital from the view point of health and thus must be integrated closely in order that the possibility of health hazards are avoided or minimized. Similarly, the housing units connected with water pipelines show coverage of 91 percent.


It is encouraging that 85 percent of the housing units were connected with gas pipeline connection, though the situation in Hyderabad Rural was on the opposite. It is understandable that in rural area per unit connection cost are relatively high and as such facilities are often not provided on the basis of increased per unit cost. Nevertheless, the significant coverage through gas connection results in low cost of fuel, cleanliness and environmental improvement – all leading to an increase in real incomes of the beneficiaries.

A very small proportion (20%) of housing units had landline telephone connections. This does not necessarily indicate financial difficulties and/or lack of provision of telephone facility in the area. Rather, it could be a result of massive expansion in the cellular phone network which is not expensive, operationally convenient and thus affordable.

The internet services were not acquired by a majority of the households (i.e. 94 percent). This could be largely a result of the lack of education and income opportunities and to a lesser extent due to smaller distribution base of landline telephone connections.

Provision of Educational Facilities
The institutions of Madrasa seem to have deeper routes in the provision of basic and religious education. The 71 percent of the households have access of a Madrisah in the vicinity. This is more so true in case of Hyderabad Rural and low in case of Qasimabad taluka which is highly urbanized and a relatively high income locality. The access to government school was also reported by 73 percent of the households. A relatively higher coverage was reported by Hyderabad Rural.

The simultaneous spread of private schools has tended to counterbalance the gaps left by the government school network in the area. The access to a private school was more pronounced in case of talukas with higher level of urbanization and incomes i.e. Qasimabad and Latifabad.

A serious lack of access to college level institution was reported by 85 percent of the households. This situation appears to be quite alarming. It implies that the educational networking is limited to school levels and no serious efforts have been made to upgrade the system. In the context of human resource development this aspect needs special attention in the formulation of master planning. Similarly, the access to vocational training particularly to females through the introductions of industrial homes is nearly absent from the district. It would be difficult to overemphasize the need to provide the facility of industrial homes in order that females also generate income sources conducive to existing social value system and the gender discrepancies are reduced.